Navigation bar--use text links at bottom of page.

P A G E   2   O F   R E F E R E N C E S   F O R

Comparative Anatomy and Physiology Brought
Up to Date: Are Humans Natural Frugivores/Vegetarians,
or Omnivores/Faunivores?

NOTE: References cited solely within quotations in the sources listed here, and/or identified using the phrase "as cited in" or similar terminology, are not included below. Check the reference list of the identified citing paper for details on such references.

Laidlaw S, Shultz T, Cecchino J, Kopple J (1988) "Plasma and urine taurine levels in vegans." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 47, pp. 660-663.

Langley G (1995) Vegan Nutrition, Vegan Society (U.K.).

Le Gros Clark WE (1964) The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution, University of Chicago Press.

Lederle FA (1991) "Oral cobalamin for pernicious anemia: medicine's best kept secret? (commentary)." Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 265, pp. 94-95.

Lee A (1996) "The transition of Australian Aboriginal diet and nutritional health." World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 79, pp. 1-52.

Lee RB (1968) "What hunters do for a living, or, how to make out on scarce resources." In: Man the Hunter, eds. Lee RB, DeVore I; Aldine Atherton, Chicago, pp. 30-48.

Lee RB (1979) The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society, Cambridge University Press.

Lee-Thorp JA, van der Merwe NJ, Brain CK (1994) "Diet of Australopithecus robustus at Swartkrans from stable carbon isotopic analysis." Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 27, pp. 361-372.

Leonard WR, Robertson ML (1992) "Nutritional requirements and human evolution: a bioenergetics model." American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 4, pp. 179-195.

Leonard WR, Robertson ML (1994) "Evolutionary perspectives on human nutrition: the influence of brain and body size on diet and metabolism." American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 6, pp. 77-88.

Lewin R (1988) "New views emerge on hunters and gatherers." Science, vol. 240, pp. 1146-1148.

Lieberman P (1992) "Human speech and language." In: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, pp. 134-137.

Lin DS, Anderson GJ, Connor WE, Neuringer M (1994) "Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina." Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 35, pp. 794-803.

MacLarnon AM, Martin RD, Chivers DJ, Hladik CM (1986) "Some aspects of gastro-intestinal allometry in primates and other mammals." In: Definition et Origines de L'Homme, ed. Sakka M, Editions du CNRS, Paris, pp. 293-302.

Mann AE (1981) "Diet and human evolution." In: Omnivorous Primates, eds. Harding RSO, Teleki G; Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 10-36.

Mann GV, Oswald OA, Price DL, Merrill JM (1962) "Cardiovascular disease in African Pygmies--a survey of the health status, serum lipids and diet of Pygmies in Congo." Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 15, pp. 341-371.

Martin FS (1990) "40,000 years of extinctions on the planet of doom." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 82, pp. 187-201.

Martin R (1992) "Scaling." In: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, p. 42.

Martin RD, Chivers DJ, Maclarnon AM, Hladik CM (1985) "Gastrointestinal allometry in primates and other mammals." In: Size and Scaling in Primate Biology, ed. Jungers WL; Plenum Press, New York, pp. 61-89.

McArdle J (1996) "Humans are omnivores." The Vegan Handbook, eds. Wasserman D, Mangels R; Vegetarian Resource Group, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 173-174. Also available on Internet at:

McCullagh KG (1972) "Arteriosclerosis in the African elephant." Atherosclerosis, vol. 16, pp. 307-335.

McGrew WC (1998) "Culture in nonhuman primates?" Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 27, pp. 301-328.

Miller J, Colagiuri S (1994) "The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM." Diabetologia, vol. 37, pp. 1280-1286.

Mills, Milton R (date unknown) "The comparative anatomy of eating." Available on Internet at:

Milton K (1987) "Primate diets and gut morphology: implications for hominid evolution." In: Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Food Habits, eds. Harris M, Ross EB; Temple University Press, Philadelphia, pp. 93-115.

Milton K (1993) "Diet and primate evolution." Scientific American, August issue, vol. 269(2), pp. 86-93.

Milton K, Demment MW (1988) "Digestion and passage kinetics of chimpanzees fed high and low fiber diets and comparison with human data." Journal of Nutrition, vol. 118, pp. 1082-1088.

Moir R (1994) "The 'carnivorous' herbivore." In: The Digestive System in Mammals, eds. Chivers DJ, Langer P; Cambridge University Press, pp. 87-102.

Moodie P (1981) "Australian aborigines." Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention, eds. Trowell H, Burkitt D; Harvard University Press, pp. 154-167.

Mozafar A, Oertli JJ (1992) "Uptake of a microbially-produced vitamin (B12) by soybean roots." Plant and Soil, vol. 139, pp. 23-30.

Mozafar A (1994) "Enrichment of some B-vitamins in plants with application of organic fertilizers." Plant and Soil, vol. 167, pp. 305-311.

Mozafar A (1997) "Is there vitamin B-12 in plants or not? A plant nutritionist's view." Vegetarian Nutrition: An International Journal, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 50-52.

Muir J, Walker K, et al. (1998) "Modulation of fecal markers relevant to colon cancer risk: a high-starch Chinese diet did not generate expected beneficial changes relative to a Western-type diet." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 68, pp. 372-379.

Murdock, GP (1967) "Ethnographic atlas: a summary." Ethnology, vol. 6, pp. 109-236.

National Research Council (NRC) (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edition, National Academy Press, Washington.

Natural Hygiene Press (1982) Fit Food for Humanity. No author listed; believed to be a rewrite of an earlier booklet by Arthur Andrews (Fit Food for Man, 1970).

Naughton JM, O'Dea K, Sinclair AJ (1986) "Animal foods in traditional Australian Aborigine diets: polyunsaturated and low in fat." Lipids, vol. 21, pp. 684-690.

Neel JV (1962) "Diabetes mellitus: a 'thrifty' genotype rendered detrimental by 'progress'?" American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 14, pp. 353-362.

Neel JV (1982) "The thrifty genotype revisited." In: The Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus, Proceedings of the Serono Symposia, vol. 47, pp. 283-293.

Nettleton J (1995) Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Health, Chapman and Hall, New York.

Niederau C, Strohmeyer G, Stremmle W (1994) "Epidemiology, clinical spectrum and prognosis of hemochromatosis." In: Progress in Iron Research, eds. Hershko C, Konjin A, Aisen P; Plenum Press, New York, pp. 293-302.

Nishida T (1991) "Primate gastronomy: cultural food preferences in nonhuman primates and origins of cuisine." In: Chemical Senses, vol. 4, Appetite and Nutrition, eds. Friedman M, Tordoff M, Kare M; Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 195-209.

Nutrition Reviews (1980) "Contribution of the microflora of the small intestine to the vitamin B-12 nutriture of man." Editorial--no author cited, vol. 38, pp. 274-275.

O'Dea K, Spargo RM (1982) "Metabolic adaptation to a low carbohydrate-high protein ('traditional') diet in Australian Aborigines." Diabetologia, vol. 23, pp. 494-498.

O'Dea K (1984) "Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian Aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyle." Lipids, vol. 33, pp. 596-603.

O'Dea K (1991) "Traditional diet and food preferences of Australian Aboriginal hunter-gatherers." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, vol. 334, pp. 233-241.

Okuyama H (1992) "Effects of dietary essential fatty acid balance on behavior and chronic diseases." In: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, Vevey/Raven Press, New York, pp. 169-178.

Oxtoby DW, Nachtrieb NH (1986) Principles of Modern Chemistry. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Ozanne SE, Hales CN (1998) "Thrifty yes, genetic no." Diabetologia, vol. 41, pp. 485-487.

Pagel M, Harvey P (1988) "Recent developments in the analysis of comparative data." The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 63, pp. 413-440.

Pardridge W (1976) "Inorganic mercury: selective effects on blood-brain barrier transport systems." Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 27, pp. 333-335.

Parker RS (1996) "Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids." The FASEB Journal, vol. 10, pp. 542-551.

Parker ST (1990) "Why big brains are so rare: energy costs of intelligence and brain size in anthropoid primates." In: Language and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes, eds. Parker ST, Gibson KR; Cambridge University Press, pp. 129-156.

Peters CR, Maguire B (1981) "Wild plant foods of the Makapansgat area: a modern ecosystems analogue for Australopithecus africanus adaptations." Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 10, pp. 565-583.

Piantadosi S (1994) "Invited commentary: ecologic studies." American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 139, pp. 761-764.

Provonsha S (1998) "A hypothesis regarding meat and the insulin-resistant state known as Syndrome-X." Vegetarian Nutrition: An International Journal, vol. 2, issue 3, pp. 119-126.

Rauma AL, Torronen R, Hanninen O, Mykkanen H (1995) "Vitamin B12 status of long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet ('living food diet') is compromised." Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, pp. 2511-2515.

Reaven GM (1994) "Syndrome X: 6 years later." Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 236 (supplement 736), pp. 13-22.

Reaven GM (1998a) "Hypothesis: muscle insulin resistance is the ('not-so') thrifty genotype." Diabetologia, vol. 41, pp. 482-484.

Reaven GM (1998b) "(letter) Insulin resistance, the key to survival: a rose by any other name." Diabetologia, vol. 42, pp. 384-385.

Reddy S, Sanders TAB, Obeid O (1994) "The influence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential fatty acid status of the newborn." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 48, pp. 358-368.

Richard AF (1985) Primates in Nature, W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.

Ridley M (1983) The Explanation of Organic Diversity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K.

Ruff CB, Trinkaus E, Holliday TW (1997) "Body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo." Nature, vol. 387, pp. 173-176.

Salem N, Wegher B, Mena P, Uauy R (1996) "Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are biosynthesized from their 18-carbon precursors in human infants." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), vol. 93, pp. 49-54 (abstract).

Sanders TAB, Reddy S (1992) "The influence of a vegetarian diet on the fatty acid composition of human milk and the essential fatty acid status of the infant." Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 120, pp. S71-S77.

Sandstrom B (1997) "Bioavailability of zinc." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51(suppl 1), pp. S17-S19.

Schaeffer O (1981) "Eskimos (Inuit)." In: Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention, eds. Trowell H, Burkitt D; Harvard University Press, pp. 113-128.

Schaller GB (1963) The Mountain Gorilla, University of Chicago Press.

Schaller GB, Qitao T, Johnson KG, Xiaoming W, Heming S, Jinchu H (1988) "The feeding ecology of giant pandas and Asiatic black bears in the Tangjiahe reserve, China." In: Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, ed. Gittleman JL; Cornell University Press, pp. 212-241.

Schneider Z, Stroinski A (1987) Comprehensive B-12: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Nutrition, Ecology, Medicine, Walter de Gruyter, New York.

Shea B (1992) "Neoteny." In: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, p. 102.

Sheldon WG (1975) The Wilderness Home of the Giant Panda, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.

Sibley CG, Ahlquist JE (1984) "The phylogeny of the hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization." Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 20, pp. 2-15.

Sibley CG, Ahlquist JE (1987) "DNA hybridization evidence of hominoid phylogeny: results from an expanded data set." Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 26, pp. 99-121.

Sicher H (1944) "Masticatory apparatus in the giant panda and the bears." In: Field Museum of Natural History (Zoological Series), Chicago.

Sillen A (1992) "Strontium-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) of Australopithecus robustus and associated fauna from Swartkrans." Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 23, pp. 495-516.

Sillen A, Hall G, Armstrong R (1995) "Strontium calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios and strontium isotopic ratios (87 Sr/ 86 Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans." Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 28, pp. 277-285.

Solberg EE, Magnus E, Sander J, Loeb M (1998) "Vitamin B12 and folate in lactovegetarians--a controlled study of 63 Norwegian subjects." Vegetarian Nutrition: An International Journal, vol. 2, issue 2, pp. 73-75.

Solomons N, Bulux J (1997) "Identification and production of local carotene-rich foods to combat vitamin A malnutrition." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51, pp. S39-S45.

Speth JD, Spielmann KA (1983) "Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies." Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, vol. 2, pp. 1-31.

Speth JD (1991) "Protein selection and avoidance strategies of contemporary and ancestral foragers: unresolved issues." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, vol. 334, pp. 265-270.

Spuhler JN (1959) "Somatic paths to culture." In: The Evolution of Man's Capacity for Culture, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, pp. 1-13.

Stefansson V (1960) Cancer: Disease of Civilization? Hill and Wang, New York.

Stephan H (1972) "Evolution of primate brains: a comparative anatomical investigation." In: The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates, ed. Tuttle R; Aldine Atherton, Chicago, pp. 155-174.

Stevens CE, Hume ID (1995) Comparative Physiology of the Vertebrate Digestive System, Cambridge University Press.

Stirling I (1988) Polar Bears, University of Michigan Press.

Story M, Brown JE (1987) "Do young children instinctively know what to eat?" New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 316, pp. 103-106.

Strickland KP (1973) "The chemistry of phospholipids." In Form and Function of Phospholipids, eds. Ansell GB, Hawthore JN, Dawson RMC; Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York. (pp. 9-42)

Sussman RW (1987) "Species-specific dietary patterns in primates and human dietary adaptations." In: The Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models, ed. Spuhler JN; State University of New York Press, pp. 151-179.

Talbot SL, Shields GF (1996) "A phylogeny of the bears (Ursidae) inferred from complete sequence of three mitochondrial genes." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 5, pp. 567-575 (abstract).

Tanner NM (1981) On Becoming Human, Cambridge University Press.

Tanner JM (1992) "Human growth and development." In: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, pp. 98-105.

Tanner JM (1992b) "Evolution of the human growth curve." In: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, p. 100.

Taylor R (1975) Butterflies in my Stomach, Woodbridge Press, Santa Barbara, California.

Tefferi A, Pruthi R (1994) "The biochemical basis of cobalamin deficiency." Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 69, pp. 181-186.

Teleki G (1981) "The omnivorous diet and feeding habits of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania." In: Omnivorous Primates, eds. Harding RSO, Teleki G; Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 303-343.

Temerin L, Wheatley B, Rodman P (1984) "Body size and foraging in primates." In: Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates, eds. Rodman P, Cant J; Columbia University Press.

Tenhunen R, Grasbeck R, Kouvonen I, Lundberg M (1980) "An intestinal receptor for heme: its partial characterization." International Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 12, pp. 713-716.

Thornhill R (1996) "The study of adaptation." In: Readings in Animal Cognition, eds. Bekoff M, Jamieson D; MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Tortora GJ, Anagnostakos NP (1981) Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Harper and Row, New York.

Tutin CEG, Fernandez M (1992) "Insect-eating by sympatric lowland gorillas (gorilla g. gorilla) and chimpanzees (pan t. troglodytes) in the Lope Reserve, Gabon." American Journal of Primatology, vol. 28, pp. 29-40.

Uauy R, Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, Birch E (1996) "Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system." Lipids, vol. 31 (suppl), pp. S-167 to S-176.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Composition of Foods handbook series: (1984) handbook 8-11, Vegetables and Vegetable Products; (1986) handbook 8-16, Legumes and Legume Products; (1989) handbook 8-20, Cereal Grains and Pasta; U.S. Government Printing Office.

van Lawick-Goodall J (1971) In the Shadow of Man, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Wakayama EJ, Dillwith JW, Howard RW, Blomquist GJ (1984) "Vitamin B-12 levels in selected insects." Insect Biochemistry, vol. 14, pp. 175-179.

Wapner R (1990) Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Wardlaw G (1999) Perspectives in Nutrition (4th edition). McGraw-Hill, New York.

Washburn SL (1959) "Speculations on the interrelations of the history of tools and biological evolution." In: The Evolution of Man's Capacity for Culture, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, pp. 21-31.

Wang X, Krinsky N, Tang G, Russell R (1992) "Retinoic acid can be produced from excentric cleavage of beta-carotene in human intestinal mucosa." Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 293, pp. 298-304.

Wang X (1994) "Review: absorption and metabolism of beta-carotene." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 13, pp. 314-325.

Watts DP (1989) "Ant eating behavior of mountain gorillas." Primates, vol. 30, pp. 121-125.

Wenxun F, Parker R, Parpia B, Yinsheng Q, Cassano P, Crawford M, Leyton J, Tian J, Junyao L, Junshi C, Campbell TC (1990) "Erythrocyte fatty acids, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease in rural China." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 52, pp. 1077-1036.

Westergaard GC, Suomi SJ (1994) "A simple stone-tool technology in monkeys." Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 27, pp. 399-404.

Williams WR (1908) The Natural History of Cancer. William Wood and Company, New York.

Wood BA (1995) "Evolution of the early hominid masticatory system: mechanisms, events, and triggers." In: Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins, eds. Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH; Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 438-450.

Courtesy link to Yale University Press's web page for the book Paleoclimate and Evolution
graciously provided in exchange for permission to reproduce Fig. 29.1 from the above article.

Wood C (1994) "The correspondence between diet and masticatory morphology in a range of extant primates." Zeitschrift fuer Morphologie und Anthropologie, vol. 80, pp. 19-50 (abstract).

Woods J, Ward G, Salem J (1996) "Is docosahexaenoic acid necessary in infant formula? Evaluation of high linoleate diets in the neonatal rat." Pediatric Research, vol. 40, pp. 687-694.

Young V, Pellett P (1994) "Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59(suppl), pp. 1203S-1212S.

Zephyr (1996) Instinctive Eating: The Lost Knowledge of Optimum Nutrition, Pan Piper Press, Pahoa, Hawaii.

Zhang Y-P, Ryder OA (1994) "Phylogenetic relationships of bears (the Ursidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 3, pp. 351-359.

Zuckerman S (1933) Functional Affinities of Man, Monkeys, and Apes. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., London.


Return to beginning of article


GO TO PART 1 - Brief Overview: What is the Relevance of Comparative Anatomical and Physiological "Proofs"?

GO TO PART 2 - Looking at Ape Diets: Myths, Realities, and Rationalizations

GO TO PART 3 - The Fossil-Record Evidence about Human Diet

GO TO PART 4 - Intelligence, Evolution of the Human Brain, and Diet

GO TO PART 5 - Limitations on Comparative Dietary Proofs

GO TO PART 6 - What Comparative Anatomy Does and Doesn't Tell Us about Human Diet

GO TO PART 7 - Insights about Human Nutrition & Digestion from Comparative Physiology

GO TO PART 8 - Further Issues in the Debate over Omnivorous vs. Vegetarian Diets

GO TO PART 9 - Conclusions: The End, or The Beginning of a New Approach to Your Diet?

Back to Research-Based Appraisals of Alternative Diet Lore

   Beyond Veg home   |   Feedback   |   Links